解析检验美高中生英文水平的100词

已经第二次看到这个“检验美国高中生英文水平的 100个单词”了,据说是 The American Heritage Dictionary 的编辑们精心编辑的,他们认为“这100个单词对于高中毕业生来说,虽然无法做到完全翔实地反映语言水平,但仍然是一个很好的评判标准”,主编 Steven Kleinedler 说:“我们选择的单词,如果你知道如何正确运用,那么你将在语言方面没有问题”。

需要说明的是,这个最早的出处地址我还没找到,无法判断其说法是否准确。

abjure

abrogate

abstemious

acumen

antebellum

auspicious

belie

bellicose

bowdlerize

chicanery

chromosome

churlish

circumlocution

circumnavigate

deciduous

deleterious

diffident

enervate

enfranchise

epiphany

equinox

euro

evanescent

expurgate

facetious

fatuous

feckless

fiduciary

filibuster

gamete

gauche

gerrymander

hegemony

hemoglobin

homogeneous

hubris

hypotenuse

impeach

incognito

incontrovertible

inculcate

infrastructure

interpolate

irony

jejune

kinetic

kowtow

laissez faire

lexicon

loquacious

lugubrious

metamorphosis

mitosis

moiety

nanotechnology

nihilism

nomenclature

nonsectarian

notarize

obsequious

oligarchy

omnipotent

orthography

oxidize

parabola

paradigm

parameter

pecuniary

photosynthesis

plagiarize

plasma

polymer

precipitous

quasar

quotidian

recapitulate

reciprocal

reparation

respiration

sanguine

soliloquy

subjugate

suffragist

supercilious

tautology

taxonomy

tectonic

tempestuous

thermodymanics

totalitarian

unctuous

usurp

vacuous

vehement

vortex

winnow

wrought

xenophobe

yeoman

ziggurat

希望在看过解析版后,最少能认识第一个词。

把kowtow作为第一个词,也是给大家增加信心的。

尽管只有100个词,但仍然可以找到最少15组同源词,也有含相同构词成分(如后缀-ous, -ate 等)的不少词。

词源解词必然会涉及音变知识,因前边博文里已经有这方面的内容,故涉及音变的主要在“点”。

1. kowtow ka tau; ka ˋta /(来自汉语的koutou)

v . ~ (to sb/sth) to show sb in authority too much respect and be too willing to obey them 叩头;磕头;卑躬屈膝;唯命是从

We will not kowtow to the government.

Europe ju r p US jur-/(在来源上不确定,传统上一直同Europa“欧罗巴”联系在一起:腓尼基王Agenor阿革诺耳的女儿,被宙斯化作白牛劫到克里特,生下三个儿子。eur=eury宽,op脸,眼,Europa表示宽阔的脸庞、宽额或大眼睛的,作为欧洲大陆,本身的意思为“西”方或“日落”的地方→)

n. 欧洲

European/ju r p n; j r ˋpi n/(Europe欧洲,-an…的,属于)

a. 欧洲的,欧洲人的

n. 欧洲人

2. euro/ju r u/(来自Eurocurrency的缩写和变化,curr跑→移动→流动,-ency 名词后缀;不断流动的东西→currency 货币;通行,流行)

n. a unit of money that can be used in most countries of the European Union 欧元

Prices are given in pounds and euros.

nanometer其实是“(矮)小”“米”, meter 是“米”,音译“纳米”,nano代表“纳”,指的是10-9数量级(one billionth),当然是很“小”了,nano中的o是连接字母,故nan代表“小”,而在普通词汇中,nan 代表 little old woman,nun与nan比较,仅是元音字母发生变化。

nun/n n; n n/(来自后期拉丁语 nonna ‘an old woman’)

n. 修女,尼姑

3. nanotechnology nn ute n l d i US -noute nɑ -/(nano代表nanometer,technology技术,即:any technology on the scale of nanometers →)

n. 纳米技术

Despite the growing pains, many experts say nanotechnology is catching on much faster than they had expected.

technology, text 还有toilet都是简单词,它们都与一个词根tect同源。

text, techn, tect 编织,编造,造

印欧词根形式为*teks-,techn, tecton均为带后缀的形式。

architect里的tect其实是来自希腊语的tekton “木匠,建造者,制造者”,tect造→带后缀的形式tecton.

4. tectonic/tek'tɑn k/(tect造→带后缀的形式tecton木匠,建造者,制造者,-ic形容词后缀;属于和建造者、建筑有关的→)

a. 1. of or pertaining to building or construction; constructive; architectural 建筑(学)的;构造的;

2. (geology) connected with the structure of the earth's surface 【地质学】地壳构造的

...the tectonicplates of the Pacific region which are separating from the East Pacific Ridge.

tauto看起来是不是有些怪异?其实它来自希腊语 to auto ,其中的to 是中性定冠词,意思是the,也与the同源。auto是“自己,自身”,tauto就是the same

dialogue 是两个人之间的“对话”,词根为log,还有apology里的log。lecture等含同源词根。

印欧词根*leg-“收集,说”对应lex“说”。

希腊语λογος (logos )表示:

1. 话,话语;

2. 谈话,对话;

3. 字,词;

4. 话题,主题;

5. 原理,原则,准则,规律。

-logy 表示:

1. …学,…论;2. 说话,语词

所以不要仅限于知道 -ology 是“…学”,要知道 -o- + -logy = -ology,而-logy 与词根lect等紧密联系着。

也要明白为什么把nanotechnology, tautology, lexicon要放在一起?

5. tautology/t t l d ;t ˋtɑl d /(tauto相同的,-logy说话,语词)

n. a statement in which you say the same thing twice in different words, when this is unnecessary, for example 'They spoke in turn, one after the other.' 同义反复;赘述

'The money should be adequate enough' is an example of tautology.

6. lexicon/ leks k n; US -k n; ˋl ks kɑn/(lex(is) 说话,措辞,词语,-ic 形容词后缀,对应希腊语的-ikos,lexicon来自希腊语lexikos的中性,即最后的-on属于语法变化带来的;属于词语的→)

n. 1. technical all the words and phrases used in a language or that a particular person knows (某语言或学科、某人或群体使用的)全部词汇

2. a list of words on a particular subject or in a language in alphabetical order(某学科或语言的)词汇表

3. a dictionary, especially one of an ancient language, such as Greek or Hebrew(尤指希腊语或希伯来语等古代语言的)词典, 字典

Chocolate equals sin in most people's lexicon.

a cute little baby 里的cute来自acute,包括acid 在内,都含有词根:

ac 尖

印欧词根形式为*ak-。

7. acumen kjumen/(ac尖→带后缀的形式acu削尖,变锋利,敏锐,-men 名词后缀;理解、判断等尖锐、敏锐→)

n. [U] the ability to understand and judge things quickly and clearly 敏锐; 精明; 聪明

The firm's success is largely due to Brannon's commercial acumen.

化学符号O大家都知道吧?很多酸中都含有“氧”,Antonie Laurent Lavoisier当初认为氧存在于所有酸中,oxygen的字面意思是“产生(gen)酸(oxy)的物质”,酸acid的词根ac与氧oxygen里的oxy为同源词根

oxide ksa d; ˋɑksa d/(来自法语oxygene=oxygen + acide=acid,氧和另一种元素或基团的化合物→)n. 氧化物

8. oxidize ks da z/(oxide=oxide,-ize treat or combine with使与…结合)

vt. (technical) to combine or to make sth combine with OXYGEN, especially when this causes metal to become covered with RUST(使)氧化;(使)生锈(因氧化而形成)

Aluminium is rapidly oxidizedin air.

The original white lead pigments have oxidized and turned black.

university里有vers。

advertise即“做广告”就是要使注意力“转向”某事。

Converse(匡威)这个品牌取自于创办人Marquis M. Converse先生的姓氏,

Converse即康弗斯,含义是“皈依者(convert)”,就是完全(con-)虔诚地“转”(vers)向某一宗教组织,词根vers 和vert 都是“转”。

9. incontrovertible/ˏɪŋkɔntrəˈvɜːtəbl/(in- 不,contro-=contra- 反对,vert转,controvert转向相反→持有相反的观点→反驳,就…展开争论;-ible可…的;不可反驳的→)

a. definitely true and impossible to be proved false 无可争辩的,不容置疑的,无可辩驳的

There is now incontrovertible evidence that the government is violating the agreement.

10. vortex/ˈvɔːteks; ˋvɔrtɛks/(是vertex的变体,即vort=vert转,-ex名词后缀;风、水等旋转得很快形成的→)

n. (pl 复数作 ~es 或 -tices / -tɪsiːz; -tɪˏsiz/)

1. (technical) a mass of air, water, etc. that spins around very fast and pulls things into its centre(风或水形成的)旋风,旋涡

2. (literary) a very powerful feeling, force or situation that you cannot avoid or escape from: (感情或局势的)旋涡

I was sucked into a vortex of despair.

want 除了“要”,还有“缺乏,缺少”的意思,词根wan就表示“缺”,“缺”失了就有“空”。

wan(t), van, vain, vac 空,缺

印欧词根形式为*(e)wa-n-“离开,离弃,用完,耗尽”,所以派生词的意思为“被离弃的,缺乏的,空的”。词根为vac, wan 等是 wa, va 等带后缀或扩展的形式。

记得有人区分不了vacation和vocation,其实二者最大的区别在词根,词根vac 是“空,缺”,空出的一段时间就是vacation。

11. vacuous/ˈvækjuəs/(vac空,u=-uus 形容词后缀,vacu就是拉丁语vacuus空的,-ous有…特性的;头脑里空的→)

a. (formal) showing no sign of intelligence or sensitive feelings 无知的;空洞的; 无意义的

a vacuous remark/question/expression/smile

Male models are not always so vacuous as they are made out to be.

vanish 中的也是van空,当然还有vain:

12. evanescent/ˏiːvəˈnesnt; US ˏev-; ˏɛvəˋnɛsnt/(e- out, van 空,-esce开始,-ent形容词后缀;开始变空即消失的→)

a. (literary) disappearing quickly from sight or memory: (fml 文) 瞬间即逝的;迅速遗忘的

Talk is evanescent, writing leaves footprints.

“完全(con-)”“信任(fid)”别人或自己的才是confident“自信的”和“确信的”,因为“信任”才有了fiancé(未婚夫)和fiancée(未婚妻),当然还有faith。

Fidius 是罗马信用之神。

fid, fed, faith 信任

13. diffident/ˈdɪfɪdənt; ˋdɪfədənt/(dif-=dis- ‘away’ 分离,缺乏,fid信任,-ent形容词后缀;缺乏对自己信任的→)a. ~ (about sth) not having much confidence in yourself; not wanting to talk about yourself 缺乏自信的;胆怯的;羞怯的

You shouldn't be so diffident about your achievements - you've done really well!

14. fiduciary/fɪˈdjuː.ʃi.ə.ri/(fid信任→拉丁语fiduci(a)信任、信赖,-ary与…有关的(人))

a. relating to the responsibility to look after someone else's money in a correct way:信托的;信用的;(尤指)受信托的,受信托的

n. Fiduciary is used to talk about things which relate to a trust, or to the people who are in charge of a trust.(尤指财产)受信托人(或公司)

They have a case against their directors for breach of fiduciary duty.

中古英语里,head的拼写是heved,古英语的拼写是heafod, 古高地德语是houpit, 现代德语是Haupt。

Capital是“首都”,而词根capit就是“头”,它与head的同源关系能看出来吗?

15. precipitous/prɪˈsɪpɪtəs; prɪˋsɪpətəs/(pre-前,cipit头,-ous有…特性的;头向前即头向下扔、抛下的、头朝下摔下去的地方的→)

a. 1. very steep, high and often dangerous: 险峻的; 陡峭的

2. sudden and great 突然的,骤然的,急剧的

3. done very quickly, without enough thought or care 草率的,仓促的,贸然的

The stock market's precipitous drop frightened foreign investors.

a precipitous marriage.

capitulate/ kəˈpɪtʃuleɪt; kəˋpɪtʃəˏlet/(capit头,-ul=-ule 小,capitul 小头→章,节,题头或标题;-ate使形成;使形成即起草投降协议的章节→)

v. ~ (to sb/sth) 1. 屈服,屈从;2. 投降

16. recapitulate/ˏriːkəˈpɪtʃuleɪt; ˏrikəˋpɪtʃəˏlet/(re- 再,capit 头,-ul=-ule 小,capitul 小头→章,节,-ate使形成;再以章或节叙述→再次重复要点→)

v. (formal) ~ (on sth) ~ sth to repeat or give a summary of what has already been said, decided, etc: 扼要重述;概括

Let's just recapitulate the essential points.

Let me just recapitulate (on) what we've agreed so far.

有些词看起来很难,但只要把它打回“原形”,就简单了,如:

17. feckless fekl s; ˋf kl s/(这个词是 effectless 的缩写,即 feck = effect,ef-出,fect做;做出的→做出的就会有→效应,影响,结果,效果,作用;-less无…的;没有影响、没有作用的、没有价值的→)

a. having a weak character; not behaving in a responsible way 品格差的,不负责任的,没出息的

Her husband was a charming, but lazy and feckless man.

He regarded the young man as feckless and irresponsible.

relax 里的 lax 来自拉丁语“laxare 放宽,放松”,laxare 也是法语laisser(让,任,不管,不过问,丢下,离开)的来源,laisser 的祈使语气动词的第二人称复数是laissez。

affair 是“事务;事情;事”,其中的 fair 就是 faire ‘ do’

factory 是很好理解的简单词。

法语 faire 里,-re是动词不定式后缀,faire来自拉丁语 facere,即 faire 里的 fa 相当于词根fac “做”。

18. laissez faire le .se fe / US / fer/(laissez让,允许,不过问,faire做;放开让做→)

n. [U] (from French) the policy of allowing private businesses to develop without government control(政府对私有商业的)自由放任主义

a. of, pertaining to, or conforming to the principles or practices of laissez faire. 自由放任的

知道什么是“第二”second吗?它当然是“跟随”在第一之后,sec是词根。

soccer是怎么来的?它来自association football,是association 中的assoc变形后加上-er构成的。

nonsectarian这个词里的关键问题是弄明白sec或sect的意思。

sec, soc, secu, sequ 跟随

印欧词根形式为 *sekw- ‘to follow’ 。

sect/sekt; s kt/(sec 跟随→追随,-t 由过去分词而来的后缀;可追随的东西→追随相似观念、思想、信仰等的一些人→)

n. 派别;宗派;(尤指宗教的)

sectarian/se te r n; s kˋt r n/(见上,-arian …派的(人))

a. [usually before noun] (often disapproving) connected with the differences that exist between groups of people who have different religious views:

a.(宗教)教派的,派性的

sectarian violence

sectarian views

Sectarian politics are ruining the country's economy.

19. nonsectarian n n se te r n/ (non- 无,非,不,sect派别,宗派,教派,-arian …派的(人),来自 -ary + -ian;非、无宗派的→)

a. Not limited to or associated with a particular religious denomination.无派系的,不属于任何宗教派别的

牛津高阶和朗当均未收录,但收了sectarian(宗教教派的,派性的)。

Nonsectarian education is vital for long-term peace.

20. obsequious/ si kw s; bˋsikw s/(ob- ‘to’, sequi =sequ ‘follow’跟随, -ous characterized by具有…特性的;跟随某人的意愿的→)

a. (formal, disapproving) trying too hard to please sb, especially sb who is important:谄媚的;巴结奉迎的;奴颜婢膝的

She is almost embarrassingly obsequious to anyone in authority.

circle, circus应该不陌生吧?不过词源上和bicycle的cycle没有关系。

拉丁语里的circus意思为“圆,圆周”,circle 其实来自circus的指小形式,字面意思是’ ‘small ring’ →圆,圆圈; 圈子。

circum- 则来自拉丁语circus的宾格。

circum- 表示:环绕,(在…)周围。

词根circ :环,圈。

词根loqu来自拉丁语loqui“说话,讲,论述”发音、意思都像“唠嗑”,loqui的过去分词词干是locut:

21. circumlocution s k ml kju n; s k mloˋkju n/(circum 环绕,locut说,-ion名词后缀;绕着而非直接说→)

n. [U, C] (formal) using more words than are necessary, instead of speaking or writing in a clear, direct way迂回曲折的说法,累赘的说法

It was always when you most wanted a direct answer that Greenfield came up with a circumlocution.

Politicians are experts in circumlocution.

22. loquacious/l kwe s; loˋkwe s/(loqu说,-aci(s)来自拉丁所有格的后缀;loquaci多嘴的,饶舌的,-ous具有…的,有…特征的)

a. (formal) talking a lot = talkative 话多的;健谈的;喋喋不休的

The normally loquacious Mr O'Reilly has said little.

sole 是“单独的,独有的”;

solo是“独奏(曲),独唱(曲),独舞”;

solitary 是“单独的,独自的;单个的;孤独的”。

拉丁语solus 表示“单独的,独一的”,它的组合语素是soli- ‘alone’.

23. soliloquy/s l l kw ;s ˋl l kw /(soli- 单独的,loqu说,-y名词后缀;独自说即对自己说→)

n . 1. [C, U] (plural soliloquies) a speech in a play in which a character, usually alone on the stage, talks to himself or herself so that the audience knows their thoughts (尤指戏剧中的)独白(的台词),独白;2. The act of speaking to oneself 自言自语

Hamlet's famous soliloquy, 'To be or not to be ...'

所谓navy “海军”,那是离不开“船”的,词根nav = 船,navy的字面意思是“船队”。

act 对应的词根除ag,还有ig:

24. circumnavigate s k nv ge t/(circum-环绕,nav船,ig= ag =drive,与act同源,-ate使成为,使形成,navigate 驾驶船→航行)

vt. 1. (formal) to sail all the way around sth, especially all the way around the world 环绕…航行;(尤指)环绕地球航行;2. to move around something in order to avoid hitting it 绕行;避开

For this year at least, our race to circumnavigate the globe in less than 80 days is over.

Manufacturers and shops circumnavigate (= avoid) gun laws by providing realistic models which are unable to discharge missiles.

如果认识pure,知道词根ag,前缀ex-,猜expurgate就毫无压力了:

25. expurgate eksp ge t/(ex- out, pur=pure纯的; 纯净的 + g=ag ‘to drive, make’ → purg 使纯净→清除,除去,删除,-ate以…处理;使清除出去、删除出去→)

vt. [usually passive] (formal) to remove or leave out parts of a piece of writing or a conversation when printing or reporting it, because you think those parts could offend people 删除…中的不当之处;略去…中的不雅之处

The book was expurgated to make it suitable for children.

recognize 可以拆分为 re-, co-, gn, -ize,其中的词根 gn 意思就是 know,二者也是同源词根,涉及 g-k 音变。

kno(w), gn(o), no(t) 知道

印欧词根形式为*gno-

26. incognito k ni t u/(来自意大利语,in-不,co-与,gn知道,-it(o)相当于形容词后缀-ite,-o 是意大利语形容词后缀,另一种拆分是:gni 知道,相当于gno,-t = -tus 拉丁过去分词后缀;字面意思 unknown 未知的;未被认识的;使别人对自己未知的→)

ad. in a way that prevents other people from finding out who you are 隐姓埋名地;微服私行地,伪装

a. 隐姓埋名的;微服私行的 ;伪装的

Movie stars often prefer to travel incognito.

no, not 如果仅是一个单词中的2个、3个字母,它们可能与“不”毫无关系了:

note/n ut; not/(no=gno, t 可能是古拉丁语 gnoscere ‘to know’过去分词变化产生的,not 知道,-e 后缀;为使知道而作一些记号、记录等→)

n. 1. 短笺,便条;2. 记录,笔记;3. 注解,按语;4. 音调,音符;5. 票据,钞票

vt. 1. 注意,留意;2. 记录,记下

27. notary n ut r /(not=note记录,-ary 从事…的人,与…有关的人)

n.someone, especially a lawyer, who has the legal power to make a signed statement or document official 公证人,公证员(尤指律师)

She is the town clerk and a certified public accountant and notary public.

贝娄娜即 Bellona 是罗马神话里的战争女神;rebel 指再次发动战争的人即“反叛分子,反对者”,词根:

bell 战争

28. antebellum n.t bel. m/(ante- 在…前,bell→拉丁语 bellum战争,-um 拉丁语中性名词词尾)

a. relating to the time before a war, especially the American Civil War 战前岁月的;(尤指)美国内战前的

Many homes and churches of the antebellum South can still be visited today.

29. bellicose bel k us/(bell战争,-ic形容词后缀,bellic属于战争的,-ose喜爱…的,充满…的,…状的;喜欢战争的→)

a. (formal) having or showing a desire to argue or fight 好争辩的;好斗的;好战的

The government is continuing its bellicose statements threatening tough action against illegal strikes.

柏拉图(Plato,约公元前427年-前347年),古希腊哲学家,对欧洲哲学产生过极大的影响。他的老师是苏格拉底。他所设立的一所学园就是现在的Academy的来源。柏拉图原名 Aristocles(意为the best glory),但因自幼身体强壮,胸宽肩阔,就被叫做 Plato,意思是Broad-shouldered 。

place 这个词的本来意思是一个“宽”阔的区域,理解了place,plagiarize 就容易了。

拉丁语的 plaga 意思为:

1. 地带,区,区域;

2. (pl.)网,捕兽网,猎捕网;

3. 罗网,圈套,阴谋,奸计

词根:plac, plag, pla 平,伸展,宽

印欧词根为 *p(e)la-,*pla-,*plak-.

plagiary pleid i ri/(plag 平,伸展→plagi(um) 伸展的网,陷阱,来自拉丁语 plaga,-ary 名词后缀,表示与…有关的人;与…有关的事;利用网、陷阱或圈套掠夺、拐骗、绑架的人或事→)

n. 1.=plagiarism 2. 剽窃者

plagiarism ple d r z m/(见上,-ism 行为,行动,结果,特征,特性)

n. 抄袭;剽窃;剽窃作品

30. plagiarize, plagiarise ple d ra z; ˋpled ra z/(plagiar(ism) 抄袭;剽窃 + -ize 以…方式对待,按一定的方式行事)

v. (disapproving) to copy another person's ideas, words or work and pretend that they are your own 剽窃; 抄袭

He accused other scientists of plagiarizing his research.

The book contains numerous plagiarized passages.

If you compare the two books side by side, it is clear that the author of the second has plagiarized (from the first).

所谓 plastic “塑料”其实就是被“塑造”即“可用模子做的东西”,这样的 plas 与 plasma的 plas 属于同源。

希腊语plassein的意思为:

1. 铸造,塑制,塑造

2. 制造

31. plasma plzm ;ˋplzm /(pla伸展,平→带后缀的形式plas伸展开、铺平用模子做→铸造,塑制,制造,-ma名词后缀;从其可以制造出血液的东西即血中的液体部分→)

n. 1. the yellowish liquid part of blood that contains the blood cells 血浆

2. a gas that contains about the same numbers of positive and negative electric charges and is found in the sun and most stars 等离子体(又叫做电浆,是由部分电子被剥夺后的原子及原子被电离后产生的正负电子组成的离子化气体状物质)

plasmo-, plasm-, -plasm 表示:

浆,血浆,原生质

希腊语的 plasma指:

1. 铸造或塑制的东西:蜡像,泥塑;

2. 仿制品,赝品

quantity 是“量,数量”,其中的词根qua就是“多少,什么”。

quasi- / kwe za -, kwe sa ;ˋkweza , ˋkwesa /(quasi=quam + si ,qua 多少,什么→quam怎样,多么,si 假如,如果,倘若,与so同源,quam-si 就是as if 如果怎样→像…,类似→)

作为前缀,表示:类似; 准; 半

人名埃斯特拉即Estella 是Stella 斯特拉的变化形式,Stella意为“星”。

最简单的“星”是star , “变身”astr 也是“星”。

印欧词根形式为*ster-,stell 其实是 ster 带后缀的形式

Klein 认为这些词根可能都来自最初的*astero, AHDOIER (The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots )里的 basic form *Ester

star, ster, ast(e)r 星

stellar/ stel (r); ˋst l /(ster带后缀的形式stell 星,-ar …的)

a. 1. 星的,恒星的

2. (infml)优秀的,精彩的,杰出的

知道了quasi 和 stellar,quasar 的问题就简单了:

32.quasar kwe zɑ (r); ˋkwezɑr/(来自quasi- + stellar ,quas(i-stell)ar (radio source))

n. (astronomy) a large object like a star, that is far away and that shines very brightly and occasionally sends out strong radio signals 类星体;类星体射电源

quote, quotation, quota 里的quo也是“多少,什么”,而 diary, dial 里的词根 di “日,天”,知道这两个词根,quotidian就好理解了:

quote/kw ut; kwot/(quo→带后缀的形式quot什么,-e后缀;用的什么、从什么地方来的→)

v. 引用,援引

n. 1. 引文,引语;2. 报价,牌价;3. [pl.]引号

quota kw ut ;ˋkwot /(quo → 带后缀的形式 quot 多少,-a 拉丁阴性词尾,是拉丁语 quota pars 即 how large a part 的缩略式;多大的一份→)

n. 定额,限额,配额

33. quotidian/kw t d.i. n/ US /kwo -/(quo →带后缀的形式 quoti 多少,所谓日记 diary 中的 di 就是“日,天”,-an 形容词后缀;多少?每日、每天的→ )

a. (formal) ordinary; typical of what happens every day 寻常的;普通的,司空见惯的;每天发生的

Television has become part of our quotidian existence.

34. totalitarian t utal te r n; t tl ˋt r n/(totalit=total + -ity 名词后缀 = totality 全体,全部,整个,-arian …主义的;国家或政府体制掌握着全部权利的→)

a. (disapproving) (of a country or system of government) in which there is only one political party that has complete power and control over the people 极权主义的

n. A practitioner or supporter of such a government 极权主义者

也有认为该词来自total + authoritarian 权力主义的

a totalitarian regime/state

They feared that totalitarians might yet conquer the entire world.

lie 是个很简单的词,加个前缀成:

35. belie/b la ;b ˋla /(be- to make, cause to seem 使,使显得,lie说谎 )

vt. 1. to give a false impression of sb/sth 掩饰,遮掩;

2. to show that sth cannot be true or correct 显示(某事)不正确,证明(某事)错误

Her energy and youthful good looks belie her 65 years.

Government claims that there is no poverty are belied by the number of homeless people on the streets.

“米”即 meter 是度量单位:

36. parameter/p rm t (r); p ˋrm t /(para-旁,met 量度 → meter 来自希腊语 metron 度量,尺度;旁边的量度、尺度→)

n. 1. [常pl.]something that decides or limits the way in which sth can be done 界限,范围;

2. A constant in an equation that varies in other equations of the same general form 参数

The researchers must keep within the parameters of the experiment.

The central office sets/establishes the parameters which guide policy at the local level.

汉语里有“显摆”、“摆谱”的说法,“说”出来也可“显”,dictionary 里有词根 dict “说”,digital 里的词根 dig 为“显示”,拉丁语 dicere 意思为“说出,提出,证明”,它们都属同源词根。印欧词根*deik-, *deig- 意思就是 to show, pronounce solemnly 。

dic, dict, dig 说,显示,对准

37. paradigm pr da m/ para-旁,dig显示,m=-ma名词后缀;在旁边并排显示以作为→)

n. 1. (formal or technical) a typical example or pattern of sth 典范;范例;样式;

2. (grammar) a set of all the different forms of a word(语法)词形变化表

The war was a paradigm of the evil and destructive side of human nature.

知道前缀 re- “后,回”和前缀 pro-“前”,reciprocal 的意思差不多就知道了:

38. reciprocal/r s pr kl; r ˋs pr kl/(re-后,ci=-cus形容词后缀,reci代表reco(s) 向后转,pro- 前,c-=cus形容词后缀,proc代表procos向前转的,-al…的;向后也向前的→)

a. involving two people or groups who agree to help each other or behave in the same way to each other 相互的,互惠的

The two colleges have a reciprocal arrangement whereby students from one college can attend classes at the other.

The department said many countries had reciprocal agreements for health care with Britain.

富兰克林即 Franklin 意为“自由民”,法国国名 France 来源于法兰克王国名,在日耳曼语中原意为“自由的”。知道了“法国”,离知道 enfranchise 的意思就不远了:

汉语中, 有些人喜欢“引吭(háng)高歌”;有些人则不喜张扬而“一声不吭(kēng)”。“吭”的两种读法反映了汉语中 k-h 的对应,英语中k-h, k-ch 均可对应。此处涉及k-g-h 音变系列。

french franch, frank 自由

franchise frnt a z; ˋfrnt a z/ (franch自由,-ise使成为…状(态);本指摆脱奴役,束缚的自由→授予特权→使具有出售或选举的自由→)

vt. 授予(或出售)特许经销权(或经营权)

n. 1. (公司授予的)特许经销权;(国家授予的)特别经营权,特许;

2. 获特许权的商业(或服务)机构;3.(公民)选举权

39. enfranchise / frnt a z; nˋfrnt a z/(en- ‘make’ 使,franch ‘free’, -ise ‘become’ 使成为…状(态);使有选举的自由→)

v. (formal) (fml 文) to give sb the right to vote in an election 给予(某人)选举权

Women in Britain were first enfranchised in 1918.

反义词:disenfranchise

seek 是“寻找”,sake 本表示需要“找出”错误、争辩的“缘故,理由”,由 same-,homo- 以及 know 与 gno(incognito)的例子,不难理解:

seek, sak, heg 找出

印欧词根形式为*sāg- ‘to seek out’

40. hegemony/h gem n /(和seek相比,s-h对应,k-g对应,heg找出→跟踪找到路→领路,领导→hegemon带路人,指挥官→领袖,-mony状态,情况;充当领袖对其它国家进行控制→)

n. (plural hegemonies) (formal) control by one country, organization, etc. over other countries, etc. within a particular group 支配权;领导权;霸权

The three nations competed for regional hegemony.

字 母C可以发K的音。来自美语的movie由moving pictures即“移动的画面”缩写而成,而英国人用的cinema来自cinematography“电影摄影(或放映)机;电影院;电影放映”,但 cinema最终来自希腊语的kinama ‘motion’ 即“运动; 移动”,即 cinema 的 cine 对应 kinetic 中的 kine:

41. kinetic/ k net k/(kine 运动,来自希腊语kinein ‘to move’,→kinet(os) ‘moved’,是kinein的动词形容词,或-tic=-ic 形容词后缀,出现在希腊语来源的词,移动的、运动的→)

a. (technical) of or produced by movement 运动的; 运动引起的

其实,exciting, cite, excite, excitement, incite, recite, solicit, solicitor 都含有同源成分。

kinetic energy

词源上eight 与oct(o) - 相对应,night 对应的是noct-, 而noct- 最终来自拉丁语nox “夜,黑夜”,即noct(i)- 来自nox的所有格。

作为组合词素的equi- ,意思就是equal

42. equinox i kw n ks/(equi 相等,nox夜;黑夜和白天时间长度相等的时间→)

n. one of the two times in the year (around 20 March and 22 September) when the sun is above the EQUATOR and day and night are of equal length 昼夜平分时,二分时刻;春分; 秋分

In the Chinese calendar, the Spring Equinox always occurs in the second month and the Autumn Equinox in the eighth month.

依维柯即 IVECO 是 Industrial vehicle Corporation 的缩写,最简单的词 way 的古英语拼写是 weg,也与 vehicle 相关。

路上是走人、走车、运东西、运人的,而词根的意思正与此相关:印欧词根形式为*wegh-“走,去,以车辆运输”。

way, vey, veh 运送,路

43. vehement vi m nt/(veh →拉丁语 vehe(re) to carry, convey, 运送,飞越,急速前进 Chamers认为ment是受拉丁语mens ‘mind’ 所有格mentis的影响,本指rushing 冲的,快速移动的→)

a. (written) showing very strong feelings, especially anger (感情)强烈的,激烈的;(尤指)愤怒的

Despite vehement opposition from his family, he quit school and became an actor.

They launched a vehement attack on the government's handling of environmental issues.

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