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To “get by” in a language it takes a vocabulary of about 120 basic words. Anne Merritt explains how to learn them.

若想把一门外语说得“凑合得过去”,至少需要掌握120个基本单词。语言学家Anne Merritt 向我们解释该如何学习这些单词。

When trying to learn a foreign language, most of us have the same complaint: “I’m just not good at memorising.” Learning new vocabulary can be daunting, especially for busy adults whose minds are already occupied with work, family, and other responsibilities.


A comfort? Linguists say that to “get by” in a language, such as directing a taxi or asking for a phone number, it takes a vocabulary of about 120 basic words. It’s a manageable goal, and a firm foundation for beginners. Here are eight tips for getting there:


1. Set realistic goals


Forget the long vocabulary study sheets, or reading the dictionary. Experts say that learners are capable or retaining 10-20 words per study hour. If you do 15 minutes of self-study per day, set a weekly vocabulary goal of 20-25 words and phrases. That’s only six weeks until the 120-word “survival kit” is learned and memorised.


2. Cluster


Those one-word-a-day language learning apps may feel convenient, but thematically, they’re all over the place, delivering a chain of unrelated words: envelope, tired, January, receive, onion. Focus on a single theme each week. The mind naturally clusters connected words together, so learning, say, types of weather in one lesson, and parts of the body the next, works in tune with your brain’s natural system for classifying information.


3. Avoid opposites


It might seem logical to study opposites together: hot/cold, expensive/cheap. It isn't. A learning hiccup called 'cross association' can occur, when you learn two words so closely together you end up mixing them up. If a Spanish student learns 'always' (siempre) and 'never' (nunca) together, they might later draw on one word when they mean to use the other. Instead, study the more common word first (eg: deep) and, once it’s retained, learn its opposite (shallow).


4. Dissect new words


When encountering a new word, take a look at its structure. Many words consist of prefixes and suffixes, and an understanding of these parts of speech is advantageous. The French word désagréable, for example, contains the negating prefix dés- and the adjective-forming suffix –able. Studying these affixes can help you to understand conjugation and structure, and make educated guesses when encountering new vocabulary.


5. Read, read, read


Reading helps you revisit learned vocabulary, and see those words in new sentences and contexts. One excellent source of foreign language exposure is through graded readers, which are designed specifically for language learners. Another good source is advertisements or menus, which tend to use short, colloquial text.


6. Visualise


One mnemonic learning trick for new vocabulary is the Keyword Method. Drawing on a similar-sounding word in your native language, visualise a picture or scene to go with the new vocabulary. For example, on a trip to Moscow, I remembered the Russian formal hello, “Zdravstvujtye” (Здравствуйте) with the mental image of a stressed vulture. These visualisations are often abstract, ridiculous, and embarrassing to admit, but they work, especially for longer words.

生词的记忆方法中,有一个叫“关键词记忆法”。把你的母语中发音相近的单词写下来,然后想象其代表的形象,从而记忆生词。举个例子,我去莫斯科旅行的时候,学会了俄罗斯语的“你好”-“Zdravstvujtye” (Здравствуйте),因为英语中的“vulture”(秃鹰)跟它发音很像,我只需把重音放在后面就可以了。这些可视化的记忆方法通常很抽象、也很无厘头,甚至有点让人羞于承认,但确实很有效果,尤其对于冗长的生词来说。

7. Focus on phrases


Linguist Michael Lewis encourages language learning in lexical chunks, rather than on a word-by-word basis. A good portion of daily communication involves predictable common phrases: “turn left,” “just a minute,” “nice to meet you.” When studying a new language, memorise these phrases and you'll have a ready arsenal of dialogue, without the stress of having to build and conjugate your sentences from scratch.

语言学家Michael Lewis 鼓励学生们用词块学语言,而不是一个词儿一个词儿地学。日常对话中,有极大一部分都是常用短语,比如“向左转”、“等一下”、“很高兴见到你”。学新语言也要牢记常用短语,很快你便能组建自己的对话短语库来,这样和人交流的时候便无需磕磕巴巴、一个词一个词地拼凑了。

8. Review often


In a vocabulary class, yesterday’s vocabulary is more important than today’s. The goal is to transfer the short-term knowledge of new vocabulary into your long-term memory. Review is essential – in the first few days or weeks after learning new vocabulary, recycle those words and you'll entrench them in your memory. A good language textbook or online program will be organised in a way that reviews and applies learned vocabulary in later lessons.



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