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2012年12月四级考试真题汇总版

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2012年12月四级考试真题汇总版
来源:文都教育

PartWriting

注意此部分试题在答题卡1上

Direction:

For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Education PaysYou should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

2012年12月四级考试真题汇总版

Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)
Why Integrity Matters

What is Integrity?

Integrity is defined as adherence to moral and ethical principles; honesty. The key to integrity is consistencynot only setting high personal standards for oneself (honesty, responsibility, respect for others, fairness) but also living up to those standards each day. One who has integrity is bound by and follows moral and ethical standards even when making lifes hard choices, choices which may be clouded by stress, pressure to succeed, or temptation.

What happens if we lie, cheat, steal, or violate other ethical standards? We feel disappointed in ourselves and ashamed. But a lapse of integrity also affects our relationships with others. Trust is essential in any important relationship, whether personal or professional. Who can trust someone who is dishonest or unfair? Thus, integrity must be one of our most important goals.

Risky Business

We are each responsible for our own decisions, even if the decision-making process has been undermined by stress or peer pressure. The real test of character is whether we can learn from our mistake, by understanding why we acted as we did, and then exploring ways to avoid similar problems in the future.

Making ethical decisions is a critical part of avoiding future problems. We must learn to recognize risks, because if we cant see the risks were taking, we cant make responsible choices. To identify risks, we need to know the rules and be aware of the facts. For example, one who doesnt know the rules about plagiarism may accidentally use words or ideas without giving proper credit, or one who fails to keep careful research notes may unintentionally fail to quote and cite sources as required. But the fact that such a violation is unintentional does not excuse the misconduct. Ignorance is not a defense.

But Everybody Does It

Most people who get in trouble do know the rules and facts, but manage to fool themselves about the risks they’re taking by using excuses: Everyone else does it, Im not hurting anyone, or I really need this grade. Excuses can get very elaborate: I know Im looking at anothers exam, even though Im supposed to keep my eyes on my own paper, but thats not cheating because Im just checking my answers, not copying. We must be honest about our actions, and avoid excuses. If we fool ourselves into believing were not doing anything wrong, we cant see the real choice were makingand that leads to bad decisions.

To avoid fooling yourself, watch out for excuses and try this test: Ask how you would feel if your actions were public, and anyone could be watching over your shoulder. Would you feel proud or ashamed of your actions? If youd rather hide your actions, thats a good indication that youre taking a risk and rationalizing it to yourself.

Evaluating Risks

To decide whether a risk is worth taking, you must examine the consequences, in the future as well as right now, negative as well as positive, and to others as well as to yourself. Those who take risks they later regret usually focus on immediate benefits (whats in it for me), and simply havent considered what might go wrong. The consequences of getting caught are serious, and may include a 0 on a test or assignment; an F in the class; Suspension or Dismissal from school; transcript notation; and a tarnished reputation. In fact, when you break a rule or law, you lose control over your life, and give others the power to impose punishment: you have no control over what that punishment might be. This is an extremely precarious and vulnerable position. There may be some matters of life and death, or highest principle, which might justify such a risk, but there arent many things that fall in this category.

Getting Away With ItOr Not

Those who dont get caught pay an even higher price. A cheater doesnt learn from the test, depriving him/herself of an education. Cheating undermines confidence and independence: the cheater is a fraud, and knows that without dishonesty, he/she would have failed. Cheating destroys self-esteem and integrity, leaving the cheater ashamed, guilty, and afraid of getting caught. Worst of all, a cheater who doesnt get caught the first time usually cheats again, not only because he/she is farther behind, but also because it seems easier. This slippery slope of eroding ethics and bigger risks leads only to disaster. Eventually, the cheater gets caught, and the later he/she gets caught, the worse the consequences. Students have been dismissed from school because they didnt get this simple message: Honesty is the ONLY policy that works.

Cheating Hurts Others, Too

Cheaters often feel invisible, as if their actions dont count and dont really hurt anyone. But individual choices have a profound cumulative effect. Cheating can spread like a disease, and a cheater can encourage others just by being seen from across the room. Recent statistics suggest 30% or more of college students cheat. If a class is graded on a curve, cheating hurts others grades. Even if there is no curve, cheating poisons the classroom, and others may feel pressured to join in. (If I dont cheat, I cant compete with those who do.) Cheating also has a destructive impact on teachers. The real reward of good teaching is seeing students learn, but a cheater says, Im not interested in what youre trying to teach; all I care about is stealing a grade, regardless of the effect on others. The end result is a blatant and destructive attack on the quality of your education. Finally, cheating can hurt the reputation of the University, and harm those who worked hard for their degree.

Why Integrity Matters

If cheating becomes the norm, then we are in big trouble. We must rely on the honesty and good faith of others every day. If not, we couldnt put money in the bank, buy food, clothing, or medicine from others, drive across a bridge, get on a plane, go to the dentistthe list is endless. There are many examples of the vast harm that is caused when individuals forget or ignore the effect their dishonesty can have. The savings and loan scandal, the stock market and junk bond swindles, and, of course, Watergate, have undermined the faith of many Americans in the integrity of political and economic leaders and society as a whole. Such incidents take a tremendous toll on our nations economy and our individual well-being. For example, but for the savings and loan debacle, there might be funds available to reduce the national debt and pay for education.

In sum, we all have a common stake in our school, our community, and our society. Our actions do matter. It is essential that we act with integrity in order to build the kind of world in which we want to live.

1. A person of integrity not only sets high moral and ethical standards but also .

A) sticks to them in their daily life

B) makes them known to others

C) understands their true values

D)sees that others also follow them

2. What role does integrity play in personal and professional relationships?

A) It helps to create team spirit

B) It facilitates communication

C) It is the basis of mutual trust

D) It inspires mutual respect

3. why must we learn to identify the risks we are going to take?

A. To ensure we make responsible choices.

B. To avoid being overwhelmed by stress.

C. so that we don’t break any rules.

D. so that we don’t run into trouble.

4. Violation of a rule is misconduct even if ?

A. it has caused no harm.

B. it is claimed to be unintentional.

C. it has gone unnoticed.

D. it is committed with good intentions.

5. What should one do if he doesn’t wish to fool himself?

A. Avoid making excuses.

B. Listen to other people’s advice.

C. Make his intensions public.

D. Have others watch over his shoulder.

6. Those who take risks they regret later on .

A. will often become more cautious

B. are usually very aggressive

C. value immediate benefits most.

D. may lose everything in the end

7. According to the author, a cheater who doesn’t get caught right away will .

A) pay more dearly

B) become more confident

C) be widely admired

D) feel somewhat lucky

8. Cheaters at exam don’t care about their education, all they care about is how to

9. Integrity matters in that all social activities rely on people’s

10. Many Americans lost faith in the integrity of their political leaders as a result of .

Part III Listening Comprehension

Section A

Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

11.

W: I just heard about a really beautiful park in the east end of the town. There are a lot of roses in bloom.

M: Why don’t we walk over there and see for ourselves?

Q: What will the speakers probably do?

12.

M: My presentation is scheduled for 9:30 tomorrow morning at the lecture hall. I hope to see you there.

W: Oh, sorry. I was about to tell you that I have an appointment with my dentist at 9:00 o’clock tomorrow.

Q: What do we learn about the woman?

13.

W: How long have you been running this company?

M: Twenty years if you can believe that. I brought it from a small operation to what it is today.

Q: What do we learn about the man?

14.

M: Have you read the news on the campus net? Susan has won the scholarship for next year.

W: I knew she would from the very beginning. Such a brilliant and diligent girl! She certainly deserves it.

Q: What does the woman mean?

15.

W: Taking a bus to Miami, it’s cheaper than going by train.

M: That’s true. But I’d rather pay a little more for the added comfort and convenience.

Q: What does the man mean?

16.

M: I think it’s time we got rid of all this old furniture.

W: You’re right. We need to promote our image besides it’s not a real antique.

Q: What do the speakers mean?

17.

M: That was some storm yesterday. How was I afraid I couldn’t make it home.

W: Yeah, most of the roads to my house were flooded. I didn’t get home from the lab until midnight.

Q: What do we learn from the conversation?

18.

W: My boys are always complaining that they’re bored.

M: Why don’t you get them into some team sports? My son and daughter play soccer every Saturday. And they both look forward to it all week.

Q: What does the man mean?

Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

W: I don’t know what to do. I can’t seem to get anyone in the hospital to listen to my complaints and this outdated equipment is dangerous. Just look at it.

M: Hmm, uh, are you trying to say that it presents a health hazard?

W: Yes, I am. The head technician in the lab tried to persuade the hospital administration to replace it, but they are trying to cut costs.

M: You are pregnant, aren’t you?

W: Yes, I am. I made an effort to get my supervisor to transfer me to another department, but he urged me not to complain too loudly. Because the administration is more likely to replace me than an X-ray equipment, I’m afraid to refuse to work. But I’m more afraid to expose my unborn child to the radiation.

M: I see what you mean. Well, as your union representative, I have to warn you that it would take quite a while to force management to replace the old machines and attempt to get you transferred may or may not be successful.

W: Oh, what am I supposed to do then?

M: Workers have the legal right to refuse certain unsafe work assignments under two federal laws, the Occupation or Safety and Health Act and the National Labor Relations Act. But the requirements of either of the Acts may be difficult to meet.

W: Do you think I have a good case?

M: If you do lose your job, the union will fight to get it back for you along with back pay, your lost income. But you have to be prepared for a long wait, maybe after two years.

Q19. What does the woman complain about?

Q20. What has the woman asked her supervisor to do?

Q21. What does the man say about the two federal laws?

Q22. What will the union do if the woman loses her job

Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

W: Mr. Green, is it fair to say that negotiation is an art?

M: Well, I think it’s both an art and science. You can prepare for a negotiation quite scientifically, but the execution of the negotiation has quite a lot to do with one’s artistic quality. The scientific part of a negotiation is in determining your strategy. What do you want out of it? What can you give? Then of course there are tactics. How do you go about it? Do you take an opening position in a negotiation which differs from the eventual goal you are heading for? And then of course there are the behavioral aspects.

W: What do you mean by the behavioral aspects?

M: Well, that’s I think where the art comes in. In your behavior, you can either be an actor. You can pretend that you don’t like things which you are actually quite pleased about. Or you can pretend to like things which you are quite happy to do without. Or you can be the honest type negotiator who’s known to his partners in negotiation and always plays everything straight. But the artistic part of negotiation I think has to do with responding immediately to cues one gets in the process of negotiation. These can be verbal cues or even body language. This is where the artistic quality comes in.

W: So really, you see two types of negotiator then, the actor or the honest one.

M: That’ right. And both can work. I would say the honest negotiator can be quite effective in some circumstances. In other circumstances you need an actor.

Q23. When is a scientific approach best embodied in a negotiation according to the man?

Q24. In what way is a negotiator like an actor according to the man?

Q25. What does the man say about the two types of negotiator?

Section B

Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.

Passage 1

Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.

Since I started working part-time at a grocery store, I have learned that a customer is more than someone who buys something. To me, a customer is a person whose memory fails entirely once he or she starts to push a shopping cart. One of the first things customers forget is how to count. There is no other way to explain how so many people get in their express line, which is clearly marked 15 items or less, with 20, 25 or even a cart load of items. Customers also forget why they came to the store in the first place. Just as I finish ringing up an order, a customer will say, “Oops, I forgot to pick up a fresh loaf of bread. I hope you don’t mind waiting while I go get it.” Five minutes later, he is back with the bread, a bottle of milk, and three rolls of paper towels. Strange as it seems, customers also seem to forget that they have to pay for their groceries. Instead of writing a check or looking for a credit card while I am ringing up the groceries, my customers will wait until I announce the total. Then, in surprise, she says, “Oh no, what did I do with my check book?” After 5 minutes of digging through her purse, she borrows my pen because she’s forgotten hers. But I have to be tolerant of customers because they pay my salary, and that’s something I can’t afford to forget.

Q26. What does the speaker say about customers’ entering the grocery store?

Q27. Which customers are supposed to be in the express line?

Q28. What does the speaker say some customers do when they arrive at the check-out counter?

Q29. What does the speaker say about his job at the end of the talk?

Passage 2

Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.

The speech delivery style of Europeans and Asians tends to be very formal. Speakers of these cultures often read oral presentations from carefully written manuscripts. On the other hand, American speakers are generally more informal relative to speakers in other cultures. American audiences prefer natural, spontaneous delivery that conveys a lively sense of communication. They don’t relate well to speakers who read from a manuscript. If you use an outline of your ideas instead of a prepared text, your speech will not only sound more natural, but you will also be able to establish better relationship with your listeners and keep their attention. The language and style you use when making an oral presentation should not be the same as the language and style you use when writing. Well-written information, that is meant to be read, does not work as well when it is heard. It is, therefore, important for you to adapt written texts or outlines for presentations. Good speakers are much more informal when speaking than when writing. They also use their own words and develop their own speaking styles. Whenever possible, they use short words. Listeners appreciate it when speakers use simple, everyday words in a presentation. One advantage is that it’s much easier for speakers to pronounce short words correctly. Another is that long and sophisticated vocabulary choices make listening more difficult.

Question 30 to

(文都教育)

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