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学语言遇到障碍了?你可能只是掉进了这3个陷阱

[摘要]说有些人说如果你不在小的时候学一门语言,那你以后学会这门语言的可能性就会随着年龄增大急剧下降。这种所谓的关键期假说其实并不对。小孩子学语言的速度很快,但这并不是说成年人就学不了。

学语言遇到障碍了?你可能只是掉进了这3个陷阱

1. The Critical Period Hypothesis

关键期假说

Some have said that if you don’t learn a language when you’re young, the chances you can do it when you’re older fade dramatically.

有些人说,如果你不在小的时候学一门语言,那你以后学会这门语言的可能性就会随着年龄增大急剧下降。

The critical period hypothesis, as they call it, is not quite right. It’s true that a child can and does learn a language quickly, but it’s far from true that an adult cannot.

而这种所谓的关键期假说,其实并不对。的确,小孩子学语言的速度很快,但这并不是说成年人就学不了。

The brain is malleable, and changes with every experience, every new piece of knowledge.

大脑是可塑的,它能随着每一点新体验、每一份新知识而变。

Neuroscientists have discovered just how adaptable the brain is, defined as neuroplasticity, and it shows not only that we can learn at any age, but that we should be continuously learning.

神经学家们已经发现了大脑的这种可变性,并将它称为神经弹性,这个发现表明:我们不光能在任何年龄学习,而且我们应该不断地学习。

2. The Fluency Illusion

流利幻觉

Another common mistake that creeps up in language learning, and learning in general, is that it can or should be easy. It’s not.

另一个关于语言学习(以及学习本身)的常见误区,是大家觉得它应该很容易。但它不是。

The fluency illusion is a bias that creeps in when we don’t have trouble recalling something.

流利幻觉是一种偏误,当你能不费力地想起什么时,这种偏误就会出现。

If you read the translations of a few words, repeat them to yourself a couple of times, and think that that’s enough, then you’ve succumbed to this illusion.

如果你读出一个新单词的释义,并自己重复几次,然后就觉得记住了,那你就中了这种幻觉的下怀。

Real learning means testing yourself, it means coming back the next day and trying to think of the translations without looking.

真正的学习意味着检验你自己,意味着你应该在第二天试着不看材料就想起这个释义。

To learn is to struggle.

学习是一种挣扎。

3. A Fixed-Growth Mindset

固定型思维与增长型思维

Carol Dweck has studied the way people look at their intelligence and abilities.

卡罗·德威克研究了人们如何看待自己的智商与能力。

For some, they see a static, unchanging aspect of themselves.

一些人把自己看成静态的、不变的。

This fixed mindset causes people to think that they are as smart, and as capable as they’re ever going to be.

这种固定的思维模式让这些人觉得自己的聪明程度和能干成都永远只能是这样。

The other type of mindset Dweck has studies is the growth-mindset.

而德威克研究的另一种思维方式就是增长型思维。

People who live with this view believe they can get better, they can become more intelligent.

有着这样思维方式的人觉得他们能变得更好,他们认为自己能变得更聪明。

They see problems as challenges to be overcome, they see failures as lessons to be learned.

他们把问题看做要克服的挑战,他们把失败当成学习的材料。

Take a growth-mindset to learning a language.

学语言的时候应该用这种增长型思维。

Seek out the challenges, make it hard on yourself, stretch beyond your capacity.

寻找挑战,故意刁难自己,然后拓展你自己的能力。

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