People are，on the whole，poor at considering background information when making individual. At first glance this might seem like a strength that __1__the ability to make judgment which are unbiased by___2___ factors. But Dr Uri Simonsohn speculated that an inability to consider the big __3___ was leading decision-makers to be biased by the daily samples of information they were working with.__4___ ，he theorized that a judges __5__ of appearing too soft __6__ crime might be more likely to send someone to prison __7__ he had already sentend five or six other defendants only to forced community service on that day.
To 8 this idear，he turned to the university-admissions process.In theory，the 9 of an applicant should not depend on the few others 10 randomly for interview during the same day，but Dr Simonsohn suspected the truth was 11 .
He studied the results of 9，323 MBA interviews 12 by 31 admissions officers.The interviews had 13 applicants on a scale of one to five .This scale 14 numerous factors into consideration.The scores were 15 used in conjunction with an applicant’s score on the Graduate Management Admission Test，or GMAT，a standardized exam which is 16 out of 800 points，to make a decision on whether to accept him or her
Dr Simonsohn found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one 17 that, then the score for the next applicant would 18 by an average of 0.075 points. This might souond small, but to 19 the effects of such a decrease a candidate would need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been 20.
1.[A] grants [B]submits [C]transmits [D]delives
2.[A]minor [B]objective [C]crucial [D]external
3.[A]issue [B]vision [C]picture [D]moment
4.[A]For example [B]On average [C]In principle [D]Above all
5.[A]fond [B]fearful [C]capable [D]thoughtless
6.[A]in [B]on [C]to [D]for
7.[A]if [B]until [C]though [D]unless
8.[A]promote [B]emphasize [C]share [D]test
9.[A]decision [B]quality [C]status [D]success
10.[A]chosen [B]studied [C]found [D]identified
11. (A)exceptional （B）defensible （C）replaceable （D）otherwise
12. （A）inspired （B）expressed （C）conducted （D）secured
13. （A）assigned （B）rated （C）matched （D）arranged
14. （A）put （B）got （C）gave （D）took
15. （A）instead （B ）then （C）ever （D）rather
16. （A）selected （B）passed （C）marked （D）introduced
17. （A）before （B）after （C）above （D）below
18. (A)jump （B）flat （C）drop （D）fluctuate
19. （A）achieve （B）undo （C）maintain （D）disregard
20. （A）promising （B）possible （C）necessary （D）helpful
An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knows which half . In the internet age, at least in theory ,this fraction can be much reduced . By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioural” ads at those most likely to buy.
In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads? Or should they have explicit permission?
In December 2010 America's Federal Trade Cornmission (FTC) proposed adding a "do not track "(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell adwertisers that they did not want to be followed .Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Apple's Safari both offer DNT ;Google's Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and DigltalAdwertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responging to DNT requests.
On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer 10,the version due to appear windows 8, would have DNT as a default.
It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Geting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway.
Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. Atter all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point for windows 8-though the firm has compared some of its other products favourably with Google's on that count before. Brendon Lynch, Microsoft's chief privacy officer, bloggde:"we believe consumers should have more control." Could it really be that simple?
26. It is suggested in paragraph 1 that “behavioural” ads help advertisers to:
[A] ease competition among themselves
[B] lower their operational costs
[C] avoid complaints from consumers
[D]provide better online services
27. “The industry” (Line 6,Para.3) refers to:
[A] online advertisers
[B] e-commerce conductors
[C] digital information analysis
[D]internet browser developers
28. Bob Liodice holds that setting DNT as a default
[A] many cut the number of junk ads
[B] fails to affect the ad industry
[C] will not benefit consumers
[D]goes against human nature
29. which of the following is ture according to Paragraph.6?
[A] DNT may not serve its intended purpose
[B] Advertisers are willing to implement DNT
[C] DNT is losing its popularity among consumers
[D] Advertisers are obliged to offer behavioural ads
30. The author's attitude towards what Brendon Lynch said in his blog is one of:
On a five to three vote，the Supreme Court knocked out much of Arizona’s immigration law Monday-a modest policy victory for the Obama Administration. But on the more important matter of the Construction，the decision was an 8-0 defeat for the Administration’s effort to upset. The balance of power between the federal government and the states。
In Arizona v United States ，the majority overturned three of the four contested provision of Arizena’s controversial plan plan to have states and local police enforce federal immigration law. The Construction principles that Washington alone has power to “establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization ” and that federal laws precede states laws are noncontroversial. Arizona had attempted to fashion state polices that ran parallel to the existing federal ones.
Justice Anthory Kennedy，joined by Chief Justice John Robrts and the Court’s liberals，ruled that the state flew too close to the federal sun. on the overturned provisions the majority held the congress had deliberately “occupied the field ”and Arizona had thus intruded on the federal’s privileged powers.
However，the Justices said that Arizona police would be allowed to verify the legal status of people who come in contact with law enforcement .That’s because Congress has always envisioned joint federal-state immigration enforcement and explicitly encourages state officers to share information and cooperate with federal colleagues.
Two of the three objecting Justice-Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas-agreed with this Constitutional logic but disagreed about which Arizona rules conflicted with federal statute.The only major objection came from Justice Antonin Scalia,who offered an even more robust defense of state privileges going back to the alien and Sedition Acts.
The 8-0 objection to President Obama turns on what Justice Samuel Alito describes in his objection as “a shocking assertion of federal executive power”.The White House argued that Arizona’s laws conflicted with its enforcement priorities ,even if state laws complied with federal statutes to the letter .In effect,the White House claimed that it claimed that it could invalidate any otherwise legitimate state law that it disagrees with.
Some powers do belong exclusively to the federal government,and control of citizenship and the borders is among them.But if Congress wanted to prevent states from using their own resources to check immigration status,it could ,It never did so.The administration was in essence asserting that because it didn’t want to carry out Congress’s immigration wishes,no state should be allowed to do so either.Every Justice rightly rejected this remarkable claim.
36.Thre provisions of Arizona’s plan were overturned because they
[A]deprived the federal police of Constitutional powers
[B]disturbed the power balance between different states
[C]overstepped the authority of federal immigration law
[D]contradicted both the federal and state policies
37.On which of the following did the Justices agree，according to Paragraph4?
[A]Federal officers’ duty to withhold immigrants’ information
[B]States’ independence from federal immigration law
[C]States’ legitimate role in immigration enforcement
[D]Congress’s intervention in immigration enforcement
38.It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that the Alien and Sedition Acts
[A]violated the Constitution
[B]undermined the states’ interests
[C]supported the federal statute
[D]stood in favor of the states
39 .The White House claims that its power of enforcement
[A] Outweighs that held by the states.
[B] Is dependent on the states’support.
[C] Is established by federal statutes.
[D]Rarely goes against state laws.
40. what can be learned from the last paragraph?
[A]. Immigration issues are usually decided by Congress.
[B]. Justices intended to check the power of the Administration.
[C]. Justices wanted to strengthen its coordination with Congress.
[D]. The Administration is dominant over immigration issues.
46. yet when one looks at the photographs of the gardens created by the homeless, it strikes one that, for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges beyond that of decoration and creative expression.
47. A sacred place of peace, however, crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelt which is a distinctly animal need.
48. The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless garden introduce from in to an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such
49 . Mast of us give in to a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions until one day we find ourselves in a garden and feel the oppression vanish as if by magic
50. It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of the word garden, though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions.
Section Ⅲ Writing
Write an email of about 100 words to a foreign teacher in your college inviting him/her to be a judge for the upcoming English speech contest.
You should include the details you think necessary
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET
Do not sign your own name at the end of the e-mail Use “Li Ming” instead.
Do not write the address.
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
1) describe the drawing briefly,
2) interpret its intended meaning, and
3) give your comments