Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension (20 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what war said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once: After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you maxi read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is, the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Example: You will hear:
You will read:
A) 2 hours.
B) 3 hours.
C) 4 hours.
D) 5 hours.
From the conversation we know that the two are talking about some work they will start at 9 o’clock in the morning and have to finish by 2 in the afternoon. Therefore, D) "5 hours" is the correct answer. You should choose [D]on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the centre.
Sample Answer [A] [B] [C] [D]
1. A) The lecture for next Monday is cancelled.
B) The lecture wasn’t as successful as expected.
C) The woman doesn't want to attend the lecture.
D) The woman may attend next Monday’s lecture.
2. A) The woman has a very tight budget.
B) He does not think the fur coat is worth buying.
C) He's willing to lend the woman money for the fur coat.
D) The woman is not careful enough in planning her spending.
3. A) Clean the kitchen.
B) Ask someone to fix the sink.
C) Find a bigger apartment for the lady.
D) Check the work done by the maintenance man.
4. A) The lens.C) The flash.
B) The price. D) The leather case.
5. A) She needs another haircut soon.
B) She thinks it worthwhile to try Santerbale’s
C) She knows a less expensive place for a haircut.
D) She would like to make an appointment for the man.
6. A) The woman doesn't want Io cook a meal.
B) The woman wants to have a picnic.
C) The woman has a poor memory.
D) The woman likes Mexican food.
7. A) Everyone enjoyed himself at John's panics.
B) The woman didn't enjoy John's parties at all.
C) It will be the first time for the man to attend John's party.
D) The woman is glad to be invited to John’s house-warming party.
8. A) She lacks confidence in herself.
B) She is not interested in computer programming.
C) She has never signed up for any competition before.
D) She is sure to win the programming contest.
9. A) The man has an enormous amount of work to do.
B) The man has made plans for his vacation.
C) The man’ll take work with him on his vacation.
D) Work stacked up during the man’s last vacation.
10. A) She likes the job of feeding fish.
B) She finds her new job interesting.
C) She feels unfit for her new job.
D) She's not in good health.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 11 to 13 are based on the passage you have just heard.
11. A) Rally support for their movement.
B) Liberate women from tedious housework.
C) Claim their rights to equal job opportunities.
D) Express their anger against sex discrimination.
12. A) It will bring a lot of trouble to the local people.
B) It is a popular form of art.
C) It will spoil the natural beauty of their surroundings.
D) It is popular among rock stars.
13. A) To show that mindless graffiti can provoke violence.
B) To show that Londoners have a special liking for graffiti.
C) To show that graffiti, in some cases, can constitute a crime.
D) To show that graffiti can make the environment more colorful.
Questions 14 to 16 are bawd on the passage you have just heard.
14. A) The Asian elephant is easier to tame.
B) The Asian elephant's skin is more valuable.
C) The Asian elephant is less popular with tourists.
D) The Asian elephant produces ivory of a better quality.
15. A) From the captured or tamed elephants.
B) From the British wildlife protection group.
C) From elephant hunters in Thailand and Burma.
D) From tourists visiting the Thai-Burmese border.
16. A) Their taming for circuses and zoos.
B) The destruction of their natural homes.
C) Man's lack of knowledge about their behavior.
D) The greater vulnerability to extinction than other species.
Questions 17 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard.
17. A) They had lost their jobs as a result of the Industrial Revolution.
B) They had been suffering from political and religious oppression.
C) They wanted to flee from the widespread famine in Northern Europe.
D) They wanted to make a fortune there by starting their own businesses.
18. A) They might lose control of their members because of the increase in immigration.
B) Their members might find it difficult to get along with the newcomers.
C) The working condition of their members might deteriorate.
D) Their members might lose their jobs to the newcomers.
19. A) To impose restrictions on further immigration.
B) To improve the working conditions of immigrants.
C) To set a minimum wage level for new immigrants.
D) To put requirements on languages for newcomers.
20. A) They were looked down upon by European immigrants.
B) They had a hard time seeking equal job opportunities.
C) They worked very hard to earn a decent living.
D) They strongly opposed continued immigration.
Part ⅡReading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part, Each passage is followed by some questions at unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
In 1985 when a Japan Air Lines (JAL) jet crashed, its president, Yasumoto Takagi, called each victim’s family to apologize, and then promptly resigned. And in 1987, when a subsidiary of Toshiba sole sensitive military technology to the former Soviet Union, the chairman of Toshiba gave up his post.
These executive actions, which Toshiba calls “the highest form of apology,” may seem bizarre to US managers. No one at Boeing resigned after the JAL crash, which may have been caused by a faulty Boeing repair.
The difference between the two business cultures centers around different definitions of delegation. While US executives give both responsibility and authority to their employees, Japanese executives delegate only authority—the responsibility is still theirs. Although the subsidiary that sold the sensitive technology to the Soviets had its own management, the Toshiba top executives said they “must take personal responsibility for not creating an atmosphere throughout the Toshiba group that would make such activity unthinkable, even in an independently run subsidiary.”
Such acceptance of community responsibility is not unique to businesses in Japan. School principals in Japan have resigned when their students committed major crimes after school hours. Even if they do not quit, Japanese executives will often accept primary responsibility in other ways, such as taking the first pay cut when a company gets into financial trouble. Such personal sacrifices, even if they are largely symbolic, help to create the sense of community and employee loyalty that is crucial to the Japanese way of doing business.
Harvard Business School professor George Lodge calls the ritual acceptance of blame “almost a feudal (封建的) way of purging (清除) the community of dishonor,” and to some in the United States, such resignations look cowardly. However, in an era in which both business and governmental leaders seem particularly good at evading responsibility, many US managers would probably welcome an infusion (灌输) of the Japanese sense of responsibility, If, for instance, US automobile company executives offered to reduce their own salaries before they asked their workers to take pay cuts, negotiations would probably take on a very different character.
21. Why did the chairman of Toshiba resign his position in 1987?
A) In Japan, the leakage of a slate secret to Russians is a grave came.
B) He had been under attack for shifting responsibility to his subordinates.
C) In Japan, the chief executive of a corporation is held responsible for the mistake made by its subsidiaries.
D) He had been accused of being cowardly towards crises that were taking place in his corporation.
22. According to the passage if you want to be a good manager in Japan, you have to ________.
A) apologize promptly for your subordinates' mistakes
B) be skillful in accepting blames from customers
C) make symbolic sacrifices whenever necessary
D) create a strong sense of company loyalty
23. What’s Professor George Lodge’s attitude towards the resignations of Japanese corporate leaders?
A) Sympathetic C) Critical
B) Biased. D) Approving.
24. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Boeing had nothing to do with the JAL air crash in 1985.
B) American executives consider authority and responsibility inseparable.
C) School principals bear legal responsibility for students' crimes.
D) Persuading employees to take pay cuts doesn’t help solve corporate crises.
25. The passage is mainly about ________.
A) resignation as an effective way of dealing with business crises
B) the importance of delegating responsibility to employees
C) ways of evading responsibility in times of crises
D) the difference between two business cultures
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
As machines go, the car is not terribly noisy, nor terribly polluting, nor terribly dangerous; and on all those dimensions it has become better as the century has grown older. The main problem is its prevalence, and the social costs that ensue from the use by everyone of something that would be fairly harmless if, say, only the rich were to use it. It is a price we pay for equality.
Before becoming too gloomy, it is worth recalling why the car has been arguably the most successful and popular product of the whole of the past 100 years—and remains so. The story begins with the environmental improvement it brought in the 1900s. In New York city in 1900, according to the Car Culture. A 1975 book by J. Flink, a historian, horses deposited 2.5 millioo pounds of manure(粪)and 60,000 gallons of urine (尿) every day. Every year, the city authorities had to remove an average of 15,000 dead horses from the streets, It made cars smell of roses.
Cars were also wonderfully flexible. The main earlier solution to horse pollution and traffic jams was the electric trolley bus (电车). But that required fixed overhead wires, and rails and platforms, which were expensive, ugly, and inflexible, The car could go from any A to any B, and allowed towns to develop in all directions with low-density housing, rather than just being concentrated along the trolley or rail lines. Rural areas benefited too, for they became less remote.
However, since pollution became a concern in the 1950s, experts have predicted—wrongly—that the car boom was about to end. In his book Mr. Flink argued that by 1973 the American market had become saturated, at one car for every 2.25 people, and so had the markets of Japan and Western Europe (because of land shortages). Environmental worries and diminishing oil reserves would prohibit mass car use anywhere else.
He was wrong, Between 1970 and 1990, whereas America’s population grew by 23%, the aumber of cars on its roads grew by 60%, There is now one car for every 1.7 people there, one for every 2.1 in Japan, one for every 5.3 in Britain. Around 550 million cars are already on the roads, not to mention all the trucks and mocorcyeles, and about 50 million new ones are made each year worldwide. Will it go on? Undoubtedly, because people want it to.
26. As is given in the first paragraph, the reason why the car has become a problem is that ________.
A) poor people can’t afford it
B) it is too expensive to maintain
C) too many people are using it
D) it causes too many road accidents
27. According to the passage, the car started to gain popularity because ________.
A) it didn’t break down as easily as a horse
B) it had a comparatively pleasant odor
C) it caused less pollution than horses
D) it brightened up the gloomy streets
28. What impact did the use of cars have on society?
A) People were compelled to leave downtown areas.
B) People were able to live in less crowded suburban areas.
C) Business along trolley and rail lines slackened.
D) City streets were free of ugly overhead wires.